Logging Cheat Sheet

General Information


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February 20, 2014 Page 1 of 6
WINDOWS LOGGING CHEAT SHEET - Win 7/Win 2008 or later
1. LOCAL LOG SIZE: Increase the size of your local logs. Don’t
worry you have plenty of disk space, CPU is not an issue
a. Application, Security & System to 32k or larger
b. PowerShell logs too
c. Whatever else you want as well
2. LOCAL SECURITY POLICY: Change Security Options –
“Audit: Force audit policy subcategory settings” to
ENABLE. This sets the system to force use of the
“Advanced Audit Policies”
3. GROUP POLICY: All settings mentioned should be set with
Active Directory Group Policy in order to enforce these
settings enterprise wide. There are cases where the Local
Security Policy would be used.
1. DNS LOGS: Enable DNS Logging. Capture what DNS
queries are happening.
a. EventID =
2. DHCP LOGS: Add your DHCP Logs –
“%windir%\System32\Dhcp.” This will allow you to
detect rogue systems on your network that fall
outside your naming convention.
a. EventID = 10 – New IP address was leased
ENABLE: Things you must do to enable logging to start collecting and keeping events.
CONFIGURE: Configuration that is needed to refine what events you will collect.
GATHER: Tools/Utilities that you can use locally on the system to set or gather log related information – AuditPol,
WEvtUtil, Find, etc.
HARVEST: Events that you would want to harvest into some centralized Event log management solution like syslog, SIEM,
Splunk, etc.
RESOURCES: Places to get information on EventID’s
 - Better descriptions of Event OD’s
 www.EventID.Net – Most of the Event ID’s
 Google! – But of course
 IIS Error Codes - - IIS Error Codes
 - Good Article
 – MS Adv Security Audit Policy Descriptions
This “Windows Logging Cheat Sheet” is intended to help you get started setting up
basic and necessary Windows Audit Policy and Logging. By no means is this list
extensive; but it does include some very common items that should be enabled,
configured, gathered and harvested for any Log Management Program. Start with
these settings and add to it as you understand better what is in your logs and what
you need.February 20, 2014 Page 2 of 6
WINDOWS LOGGING CHEAT SHEET - Win 7/Win 2008 or later
Windows Audit Policy settings may be set by the Local Security Policy, Group Policy (preferred) or by
command line using ‘AuditPol.exe’.
1. SYSTEM AUDIT POLICIES: In order to capture what you
want and need the following Advanced Audit Policies
must be set. You may expand these to your specific
needs, but here is a place to start.
List out the System audit policy
 Command: AuditPol /get /category:*
Category/Subcategory Setting
------------------------------- ------------------------
 Security System Extension Success and Failure
 System Integrity Success and Failure
 IPsec Driver Success and Failure
 Other System Events Failure
 Security State Change Success and Failure
 Logon Success and Failure
 Logoff Success
 Account Lockout Success
 IPsec Main Mode No Auditing
 IPsec Quick Mode No Auditing
 IPsec Extended Mode No Auditing
 Special Logon Success and Failure
 Other Logon/Logoff Events Success and Failure
 Network Policy Server Success and Failure
Object Access
 File System Success
 Registry Success
 Kernel Object Success and Failure
 SAM No Auditing
 Certification Services Success and Failure
 Application Generated Success and Failure
 Handle Manipulation No Auditing
 File Share Success and Failure
 Filtering Platform Packet Drop No Auditing
 Filtering Platform Connection Success (Win FW)
 Other Object Access Events No Auditing
 Detailed File Share Success
To set an item:
 Auditpol /set /category:"Account Management"
/success:enable /failure:enable
Category/Subcategory Setting
------------------------------- ------------------------
Privilege Use
 Sensitive Privilege Use Success and Failure
 Non Sensitive Privilege Use No Auditing
 Other Privilege Use Events No Auditing
Detailed Tracking
 Process Termination Success and Failure
 DPAPI Activity No Auditing
 RPC Events Success and Failure
 Process Creation Success and Failure
Policy Change
 Audit Policy Change Success and Failure
 Authentication Policy Change Success and Failure
 Authorization Policy Change Success and Failure
 MPSSVC Rule-Level Policy Change No Auditing
 Filtering Platform Policy Change Success (Win FW)
 Other Policy Change Events No Auditing
Account Management
 User Account Management Success and Failure
 Computer Account Management Success and Failure
 Security Group Management Success and Failure
 Distribution Group Management Success and Failure
 Application Group Management Success and Failure
 Other Acct Management Events Success and Failure
DS Access
 Directory Service Changes Success and Failure
 Directory Service Replication No Auditing
 Detailed Directory Service Repl No Auditing
 Directory Service Access No Auditing
Account Logon
 Kerberos Service Ticket Oper No Auditing
 Other Account Logon Events Success and Failure
 Kerberos Authentication Service No Auditing
 Credential Validation Success and FailureFebruary 20, 2014 Page 3 of 6
WINDOWS LOGGING CHEAT SHEET - Win 7/Win 2008 or later
1. FILE AUDIT: Select directories you want to monitor file activity. Right-Click directory – Properties – Security –
Advanced – Auditing – Edit – Add – EVERYONE – (check names), OK -
a. Apply onto – THIS FOLDER ONLY (or what you want)
b. Create file / write data – Successful
c. Create folders / append data - Successful
 \ProgramData * \Windows
 \System * \System32
 \System32\drivers * \System32\Wbem
 \Users\XYZ\AppData\Local * \Users\XYZ\AppData\Locallow
 \Users\XYZ\AppData\Roaming * Whatever else you want to audit
3. To apply these audit settings it is a by system manual method or you can use PowerShell, subinacls(warning)
4. WEvtUtil: Use this utility to configure your log settings
a. WevtUtil gl Security – List settings of the Security Log
b. WevtUtil sl Security /ms:512000000 – Set the Security Log size to the number of bytes
c. WevtUtil sl Security /rt:false – Overwrite as needed
1. REGISTRY AUDIT: Select Registry Keys you want to monitor changes to. Right-Click a Key – Permissions – Advanced –
Auditing – Add – EVERYONE – (check names), OK.
a. Apply onto – THIS KEY ONLY (or what you want)
b. Select ‘Set Value’, ‘Create Subkey’, ‘Create Link’, ‘Delete’, ‘Write DAC’ & ‘Write Owner’ to start
c. Be careful setting auditing to ‘Keys and subkeys’ as this can generate a lot of data
a. HKCU & HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion
i. Run
ii. RunOnce
b. HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet
i. Services (noisy)
c. HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows
i. AppInit_Dlls value
d. USB Devices
i. HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\ENUM\USBSTOR – Name of USB Device
ii. HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\EMDMgmt – Device details, last write
3. REG.EXE: Use this utility to query what is in a Key or the data within a key or value
a. Query a Key and all values - Reg query "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run"
b. Query a value of a Key - Reg query "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run" /v malwareFebruary 20, 2014 Page 4 of 6
WINDOWS LOGGING CHEAT SHEET - Win 7/Win 2008 or later
1. AUDITPOL: Use this utility to view your current log settings
a. List all Policies categories: AuditPol /List /Subcategory:*
b. List what is SET: AuditPol /get /category:*
c. List what is SET for a subcategory:
 AuditPol /get /category:"Object Access”
2. Reg.exe: Use this utility to query the registry
a. Changes to AppInit_Dlls - reg query "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows" /v
b. Changes to Services Keys - reg query "HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services"
c. Changes to Machine Run Key - reg query "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run”
d. Changes to Machine RunOnce Key - reg query "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce”
e. Changes to User Run Key - reg query "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run”
f. Changes to User RunOnce Key - reg query "HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce”
3. SC.exe: Use this utility to query the services (sc /? For help)
a. List all services in any state – sc.exe query state= all (Note: ‘space’ after the = sign)
b. Look for a specific service – sc.exe query state= all | find /I “telnet”
c. After finding the ‘Display_Name’ then look for the ‘Service_Name’ to get the short name
1. WEvtUtil: Use this utility to query your logs
a. WevtUtil qe Security – query the Security Log for events
i. Lots of flags here so read help “WevtUtil -?”
ii. /c:5 = Read 5 events
iii. /rd:true = newest events first
iv. /f:text = format text, also can do XML
b. Success & Failed Logons - WevtUtil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=4624 or EventID=4625)]]" /c:5 /rd:true
/f:text >Parsed\%computername%_Logon_Events_Win7.log
c. User Account Change - WevtUtil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=4738)]]" /c:5 /rd:true /f:text
d. New Service Installed - WevtUtil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=7045)]]" /c:5 /rd:true /f:text
e. User Account Changes - wevtutil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=4725 or EventID=4722 or EventID=4723 or
EventID=4724 or EventID=4726 or EventID=4767)]]" /c:10 /f:text
2. Filtering Log Results: Use this method to filter lines within the logs
a. Registry Changed – Find entries with ‘Object Name’ - WevtUtil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=4657)]]" /c:5
/rd:true /f:text |find /i"Object Name"
b. File or Registry Changed – Find entries with ‘Object Name’ - WevtUtil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=4663)]]"
/c:50 /rd:true /f:text |find /i "Object Name"
c. Files – Find new files with ‘Wbem’ - WevtUtil qe Security /q:"*[System[(EventID=4663)]]" /c:50 /rd:true /f:text
|find /i "wbem"February 20, 2014 Page 5 of 6
WINDOWS LOGGING CHEAT SHEET - Win 7/Win 2008 or later
1. SERVICES: Found in the SYSTEM log
d. 7045 – Message=A service was installed in the system.
e. 7040 Message=The start type of the XYZ service was changed from auto start to disabled.
f. 7000 - Message=The XYX service failed to start due to the following error: The service did not respond to the start
or control request in a timely fashion.
g. 7022 - Message=The XYZ service hung on starting.
h. 7024 - Message=The XYZ service terminated with service-specific error %%2414.
i. 7031 - Message=The XYZ service terminated unexpectedly. It has done this 1 time(s). The following corrective
action will be taken in 60000 milliseconds: Restart the service.
j. 7034 - Message=The XYZ service terminated unexpectedly. It has done this 1 time(s).
k. 7035 – Service sent a request to Stop or Start
l. 7036 – Service was Started or Stopped
1. LOG CLEAR: Watch for log clear messages
a. 104 – SYSTEM Log – The Application or System log
was cleared
b. 1102 – SECURITY Log – The audit log was cleared
2. TASKS: Watch for a Process to start and call other
a. 4698 – SECURITY Log – New Task Created
3. DRIVER: Watch for an issue with a driver
a. 40 – Issue with Driver
4. OS VERSION: What OS do machines have
a. 6009 – Lists OS version, Service Pack and processor
1. PROCESSES: Watch for a Process to start and call other
a. 4688 – SECURITY Log – New Process Name, look
for Creator Process ID to link what process
launched what
2. INSTALLER: Watch for the Windows Installer activity
a. 1022 – Windows Installer updated the product
b. 1033 – Windows Installer installed the product
c. 1034 – Windows Installer removed the product
3. WINDOWS UPDATE: Watch for the Windows Update
Agent activity.
a. 18 = Ready, 19 = Installed, 20= Failure
4. WINDOWS TIME: Watch for the Windows Service
synchronization. Make sure your sources are what they
are supposed to be.
a. 35 – Time Service sync status and source
5. APPLICATION ERROR: Watch for application crashes.
a. 1000 – (Application Log) Application Fault
1. ACCOUNTS: Monitor for attempts to change an account
a. 4724 – An attempt was made to reset an accounts
b. 4735 – Local Group changed
c. 4738 – User account password changed
1. APPLOCKER: Watch for triggers to AppLocker events (8000-
a. 8004 – Filename not allowed to run
2. SRP: Watch for triggers to Software Restriction Policies
b. 865 – Access to <filename> has been restricted
1. AUDIT POLICY: Watch for changes to the Audit Policy that
a. 4719 – System audit policy was changedFebruary 20, 2014 Page 6 of 6
WINDOWS LOGGING CHEAT SHEET - Win 7/Win 2008 or later
1. NEW FILE ADDED: Watch for the creation of new files.
Requires File auditing of the directory(s) that you want to
b. 4663 – Accesses: WriteData (or AddFile)
c. GREAT for CryptoLocker & Malware drops
1. REGISTRY: Watch for the creation or modification of new registry keys and values
a. 4657 – Accesses: WriteData (or AddFile)
i. HKLM, HKCU & HKU – Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion
1. Run, RunOnce
ii. HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows
1. Watch AppInit_Dlls
iii. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\EMDMgmt
1. Watch Connection time of USB Devices
iv. HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services
1. Watch for NEW Services
v. HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Enum\USBSTOR
1. Watch for NEW USB devices
2. FIREWALL: Windows Filtering Platform - Watch for
Inbound and Outbound connections – Requires
Windows Firewall to be enabled
a. This is the noisiest of all Events. Generating
easily 9,000 - 10,000 events per hour per system
b. Storage is required to utilize this event
c. 5156 – Message=The Windows Filtering
Platform has permitted a connection. Look for:
i. Direction:, Source Address:, Source
Port:, Destination Address: &
Destination Port:
1. REGISTRY: Monitor certain Keys for Add, Changes and
Deletes. Setting auditing on the Specific keys is
a. 4657 – A Registry value was modified
1. EMAIL / VPN: Monitor for failed and successful logins
to your VPN and Webmail application. Consider
emailing user if login is from a new IP not in your
exclude list
a. sc_status=401 – Failed OWA login
b. "reason = Invalid password" – Failed VPN login
- Cisco
1. LOGON TYPE: Monitor for what type of logons occur
a. 4624 – Message=An account was successfully
logged on.
i. Type 2 – Interactive – GUI
ii. Type 3 – Network – Net Use
iii. Type 4 – Batch
iv. Type 5 – Service
v. Type 7 – Unlock
vi. Type 8 – Network Clear Text
vii. Type 9 – New Credentials (RDP Tools)
viii. Type 10 – Remote Interactive (RDP)
ix. Type 11 – Cached Interactive (laptops)
b. 4625 – Message = An account failed to log on.
1. SYSTEM INTEGRITY: Watch for files with page images with
bad hashes
a. 6281 – Failed – “page hashes of an image file are
not valid”
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